SUA logo

Founded in 1994, Shape Up America! is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit organization committed to raising awareness of obesity as a health issue and to providing responsible information on healthy weight management.

References for "Sugar Substitutes: Are They Safe?"

REFERENCES

1 This article is based on: Meister K. Sugar substitutes and your health. 2006; American Council on Science and Health. Available at: http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.1316/pub_detail.asp and on the scientific paper: Kroger M, Meister K, Kava R. Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: a review of the safety issues. CRFSFS 2006; 5:35-47. Available at: http://members.ift.org/IFT/Pubs/CRFSFS/current.

2 Nabors LO. Sweet choices: sugar replacements for foods and beverages. Food Technol 2002; 56:28-32.

3 U.S. FDA. 1988. Food additives permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption: acesulfame-potassium. Final rule. Fed. Reg 53:28379-83.

4 U.S. FDA. 1998. Food additives permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption: acesulfame-potassium. Final rule. Fed. Reg 63: 36344-62.

5 U.S. FDA. 2003. Food additives permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption: acesulfame-potassium. Final rule. Fed. Reg 68:75411-3.

6 Scientific Committee on Food. 2000a. Opinion. Reevaluation of acesulfame K with reference to the previous SCF opinion of 1991. SCF/CS/ADD/EDUL194 final. Brussels:SCF.

7 Mukherjee A, Chakrabarti J. In vivo cytogenetic studies on mice exposed to Acesulfame-K—a non-nutritive sweetener. Food Chem Toxicol 1997; 35:1177-9.

8 Mukhopadhyay M, Mukherjee A, Chakrabarti J. In vivo cytogenetic studies of blends of aspartame and Acesulfame-K. Food Chem Toxicol 2000; 38:75-7.

9 U.S. FDA. 1981. Aspartame: commissioner’s final decision. Fed. Reg 46: 38284-308.

10 Taeufel A, Tunger L, Zobel M. 1981. Lebensmittel-lexicon. Leipzig: VEB Fachbuch-verlag. p 555-6.

11 Macrae UK, Robinson RK, Sadler MJ. 1993. Encyclopedia of food science. London: Academic Press. p 988.

12 Filer LJ, Baker GL, Stegink LD. Effect of aspartame loading on plasma and erythrocyte free amino acid concentrations in one-year-old infants. J Nutr 1983; 113:1591-9.

13 Puthrasingam S, Heybroek WM, Johnston A, Maskrey V, Swift CG, Turner P, Abrams SML, Jackson SHD. Aspartame pharmacokinetics—the effect of ageing. Age Ageing 1996; 25:217-20.

14 Nehrling JK, Kobe P, McLane MP, Olson RE, Kamath S, Horwitz DL. Aspartame use by persons with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1985; 8:415-7.

15 Okuno G, Kawakami F, Tako H, Kashihara T, et al. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagons concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1986; 2:23-7.

16 Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, et al. Aspartame: review of safety. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 2002; 35:S1-93.

17 Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD, et al. First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(3):379-85.

18 Lim U, Subar AF, Mouw T, Hartge P, et al. Prospective study of aspartame-containing beverages and risk of hemaopoietic and brain cancers. Abs. # 4010. Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the AACR, April 4, 2006.

19 Kroger M, Meister K, Kava R. Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: a review of the safety issues. CRFSFS 2006; 5:35-47.

20 Kipple KF, Ornelas KC. 2000. The Cambridge world history of food. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. p 1679.

21 Sweatman TW, Renwick AG, Burgess CD. The pharmacokinetics of saccharin in man. Xenobiotica 1981; 11:531-40.

22 Tisdel MO, Nees PO, Harris DL, Derse PH. 1974. Long-term feeding of saccharin in rats. In: Inglett GE, ed., Symposium: sweeteners. Westport, Conn: Avi Publishing Co. p 145-58.

23 Schoenig GP, Goldenthal EI, Geil RG, et al. Evaluation of the dose response and in utero exposure to saccharin in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 1985; 23:475-90.

24 Taylor JM, Weinberger MA, Friedman L. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity to the urinary bladder of sodium saccharin in the in utero-exposed rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1980; 54:57-75.

25 Ellwein LB, Cohen SM. The health risks of saccharin revisited. Crit Rev Toxicol 1990; 20:311-26.

26 Cohen SM, Masui T, Garland EM, Arnold LL. Effects of diet on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and cancer prevention. J Nutr 1997; 826S-9S.

27 Cohen SM, Anderson TA, de Oliveira LM, Arnold LL. Turmorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats. Cancer Res 1998;58:2557-61.

28 Morgan RW, Wong O. A review of epidemiological studies on artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer. Food Chem Toxicol 1985; 23:529-33.

29 Elcock M, Morgan RW. Update on artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 1993;17:35-43.

30 Jensen OM, Kamby C. Intra-uterine exposure to saccharin and risk of bladder cancer in man. Int J Cancer 1982;29:507-9.

31 Armstrong B, Doll R. Bladder cancer mortality in diabetics in relation to saccharin consumption and smoking habits. Br J Prev Soc Med 1975;29:73-81.

32 Natl. Toxicology Program. 2000. Report on carcinogens. 9th ed. Research Triangle Park, N.C: NTP.

33 U.S. FDA. 2002. Food additives permitted or in contact with food on an interim basis pending additional study: saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin and sodium saccharin. 21 CFR 180.37.

34 U.S. FDA. 1999. Food additives permitted or in contact with food on an interim basis pending additional study: sucralose. Final rule. Fed Reg 64:43908-9.

35 Grotz VL, Henry RR, McGill JB et al. Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103:1607-12.

36 America’s War on Carcinogens. 2005. American Council on Science and Health. Available at: http://www.acsh.org/news/newsID.997/news_detail.asp.

37 Does Nature Know Best? Natural Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in America's Food. The American Council on Science and Health. 1996. Available at: http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.315/pub_detail.asp.